+91-9317540000 / +91-9780633411 info@girnhospital.com GT Road,Near Police Station (main Ludhiana-Delhi highway)
+91-9317540000 / +91-9780633411 info@girnhospital.com GT Road,Near Police Station (main Ludhiana-Delhi highway)

What is Colorectal (colon) Cancer? Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.

What is Colorectal colon Cancer

Colon Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer observed in people these days. It commences in the colon or rectum and grows out of control. The Colon and rectum are those organs that form the lower portion of the digestive system.

The symptoms, treatment, and overall outlook for colon cancer are dependent on the stage of cancer once it is diagnosed. You need to consult a colorectal cancer surgeon in Ludhiana if you have any alarming symptoms discussed further.

Let’s dive into the stages of colon cancer:

Dr H.R.S Girn Head of GI and Liver Sciences uses a set of guidelines to figure out how far the cancer is spread. It is important for a doctor to understand the stage and the treatment plan of the patient.

Stage 0 is the earliest stage, where only the inner lining of the colon or rectum is in an abnormal state.

In Stage 1 , cancer has penetrated the lining, or mucosa, of the colon and might have grown into the muscle layer. In such cases, it hasn’t spread around the lymph nodes.

In Stage 2, cancer usually spreads to the walls of the colon or rectum. It can even go through the walls of some nearby tissues.

In Stage 3, cancer has spread even to the lymph nodes of the body and not to various other parts.

In Stage4 , cancer has spread to various other organs of the body.

What are the symptoms of colon cancer?

There is a possibility that a person might not see any symptoms of colon cancer at all. The stage 0 and 1 include:

  • Constipation

  • Change in the stool color

  • Diarrhoea

  • Change in the stool shape

  • Blood in the stool

  • Blood from rectum

  • Excessive gastritis

  • Abdominal pain

However, if a person has Stage 3 or 4, the symptoms may include:

  • Excessive fatigue

  • Unintentional weight loss

  • Change in stool longer than a month

  • Vomiting

What are the different types of cancers?

There are different types of cancer that can occur. The most common type is adenocarcinomas. It is formed within the cells that turn cancerous. The less commonly caused types are:

  • Lymphomas
  • Carcinoids
  • Sarcomas
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

What are the causes of colon cancer?

The researchers are still working hard to get the in-depth reasons for colon cancer. However, cancer may be caused by some genetic mutation that is either inherited or acquired. These cases do not specify but increase the chances of cancer.

How is colon cancer diagnosed?

Prevention is always better than cure. Hence, early chances are the best way of curing it. Colon cancer usually does not have any symptoms during the early stages, however, it can be diagnosed in routine screening.

Various physical exams are performed by the doctor. They may check your abdomen or rectal exam for the diagnosis of any lump or polyps.

Fecal Testing

These tests are done to detect hidden blood in your stool. It is of two types:

  • Guaiac-based fecal occult blood test It is a plant-based substance, that is used to coat a special card that the stool sample is placed upon. The card will change its color if blood is present in your stool.
  • Fecal immunochemical test It is a protein that is found in the blood and is detected by FIT. It is quite precise in comparison to the guaiac-based test.

Blood tests

There are various blood tests that give a better idea of the symptoms. Liver Function Test and Complete blood counts can help in ruling out other diseases.


It is a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to examine your sigmoid colon, which is the last section of your colon. It is a procedure that includes a flexible tube with a light on it.


The usage of long tubes attached to a very small camera is used to perform this procedure. This helps in checking inside your colon and rectum for any problems.


This procedure contains the chemical element barium. The doctor inserts the liquid into the bowels using a barium enema. It coats the lining of the colon and hence improves the quality of the X-ray.

CT Scan

This helps in diagnosing colon cancer also known as a virtual colonoscopy.

What are the treatment options?

It is dependent on a variety of factors. If anyone is facing such issues Girn hospital is the best for the treatment of colon cancer.

  • Surgery In the early stages, cancer can be removed easily using surgical methods. If the polyp hasn’t attached to the walls of the bowels, you can expect a great outcome. A portion of the rectum or colon might be required to be removed and hence spreads into your bowel walls. If the surgeons aren’t able to perform this, a colostomy is suggested.
  • Chemotherapy This involves the usage of drugs that helps in killing cells. People having this cancer usually undergo chemotherapy after the surgery. This procedure also helps in controlling the growth of the tumour.
  • Radiation This powerful beam of energy is used to target and destroy the cancerous cells
    present before or after the surgery.

Dr H.R.S Girn Head of GI and Liver Sciences is one of the best doctors in Ludhiana for colon cancer treatment. He is a liver transplant specialist surgeon in Ludhiana, Punjab. Girn hospital provides patients with comprehensive care for the patients and our team is highly skilled in helping patients in an integrated manner. In case of any issue, Get in touch with our experts.

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What is Colorectal (colon) Cancer? Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.

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